Situation. AMSTERDAM. 43, Route. 369
which no permanent building can be erected unless a solid substruc-
ture be first formed by driving piles (44-60 ft. long) into the firmer
sand beneath. The depth of water in the canals or ‘Grachten’
(p. xxxvi), which intersect the city in every direction, is about
3-31/5 ft., below which is a layer of mud of equal thickness. To
prevent malarial exhalations the water is constantly renewed by an
arm of the North Sea Canal, while the mud is removed by dredgers.
The oldest part of the town, with the largest number of canals,
some of which have been entirely filled up (‘gedempt’) since 1880,
is bounded on the W. and S. by the Singel and on the E. by the
Kloveniers- Burgwal, the name of which recalls the 15th cent.
fortifications. The successive zones of expansion around this
nucleus are marked by a series of concentric canals, from the Heeren-
Gracht (1585) to the Keizers-Gracht (1593), Prinsen-Gracht (1622),
and outer Singel-Gracht (1658), which encloses an area of about
1800 acres. These main canals are flanked with avenues of elms
and present a pleasant and at places a handsome and picturesque
appearance. The finest buildings, including many in the peculiar
Dutch brick style of the 17th cent., are on the Keizers-Gracht and
Heeren-Gracht. Among the influential architects of that day may
be mentioned Hendrik de Keyser (1565-1621), Jacob van Campen
(1598-1657), and Philips Vineckboons (1608-1675). Otherwise the
tall and narrow houses of the town, with their gables turned towards
the streets, present a somewhat monotonous appearance. For over
200 years 8 the old town was able to accommodate the inhabitants,
but since 1870 new quarters have arisen beyond the Singel-Gracht,
and these are steadily expanding, mainly on the S.W. side, between
the Amstel and the Vondel Park, and on the B. side.
The streets are pleasantly enlivened, especially on Sun. and
by the picturesque umes of the children educated at the dif
phanages. Those of the Municipal Orphanage (p. 373) wear costumes in
which the black and red city colours appear; the girls uf the Roman
Catholic Orphanage have black dre vith white head-dresse 8; and those
of the Walloon Orphanage wear violet-coloured dresses.
RELIGION. The complete religious toleration which has long prevailed
in Holland has led to the formation of numerous different Sects, an en-
umeration of whose churches will afford the best idea of their respective
numbers. 1 and most interesting churches are the Reformed, 13 in
number. ng also are Protestant places of worship: 2 Walloon,
1 English 1 Scottish Presbyterian, 1 ‘Remonstrant’ (a sect
without but which regards the Bible as its sole guide;
see p. > Lutheran (a sect which professes to adhere to
the spirit rather than E the letter of the Augsburg Confession), 1 ‘R
established Lutheran’ (differing slightly from the ‘Reformed’ churc
2 Bap tist (D oopsg
inde), 3 Reformed Christian, and 2 others (ultra- ortho-
dox), nod some years ago. There are 22 Roman Catholic and
2 Jansenist or ‘Old atholie’ churches (p. 438). There is also a Béguinage
(p. 373) here in the style of those at Ghent and Bruges (see pp. 77, 84),
Ww hich has been in existence since the 14th century. Finally the 2 Jewish
gogues (p. 375), the meeting-house of the Free Brethren, and the
ing-rooms of the Salvation Army (Warmoes-Straat, etc.), which has
developed a characteristically active zeal in Holland.
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K 29612:[a,1,11], Collectie Stad Antwerpen, Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience
Baedeker, Karl, Belgium and Holland, including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg: handbook for travellers, K 29612:[a,1,11], Collectie Stad Antwerpen, Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience