||xl History. HOLLAND.
peace with Spain in 1609. Incensed by the quarrels which now
ensued, Maurice caused Oldenbarnevelt, then in his 72nd year, to
be arrested and condemned to death by a partial tribunal in 1618
(p. 329), but by this judicial murder he did not succeed in intimid-
ating his refractory subjects. Maurice died in 1625, and was suc-
ceeded by his brother Frederick Henry (1625-47), under whom
the unity of the Republic became more consolidated, and the
prosperity of the States reached its climax. Both by land and by
sea they triumphed over the Spaniards in the hostilities which now
broke out afresh; and in 1628 the gallant admiral Piet Hein
(p. 312) captured the Spanish ‘silver fleet’. The Dutch commerce
of that period was the most widely extended in the world.
The great Dutch navigators Houtman, Heemskerck (p. 374),
Schouten (p. 414), Le Maire, Hartog, Caron, Tasman, and Linschoten
explored the most distant coasts in the world d uring this period, while
the E. Indian factories, especially that of Batavia, which had been
established in 1619, yielded a rich harvest. The Dutch school of
painting now attained its culminating point (comp. p. 1x), and the
sciences were also highly cultivated during this prosperous epoch,
as the well-known names of Huygens, Grotius, Vossius, Daniel and
Nicolaes Heinsius, Gronovius , Burman, Tiberius and Franciscus
Hemsterhuis, etc., abundantly testify.
Frederick Henry died in 1647, shortly before the Peace of
Westphalia, by which the independence of the United States of the
Netherlands was formally recognized, and was succeeded by his
son William, then in his 24st year.
The renewal of dissensions between the States and the stadt-
holder determined them, on the early death of this prince in 1650,
not to elect a new governor, and the reins of government were now
entrusted to the distinguished Grand Pensionary John de Witt, an
able and energetic senator.
During this period the navigation acts were passed by Orom-
well, placing restrictions on the Dutch trade, and thus giving rise
to the war which called into activity the talents of Tromp, De
With, De Ruyter, and other naval heroes, whose memory is still
Justly cherished by the Dutch. Within the brief period of sixteen
months (1652-54) no fewer than thirteen great naval battles were
fought, in most of which the arms of the Republic were crowned
with success. By the peace concluded in 1654, however, the States
were obliged to recognize the authority of the navigation acts. In
1665 a war with England again broke out, during which, in 1667,
De Ruyter even entered the estuary of the Thames with his fleet,
endangering the safety of London itself, to the great consternation
of the citizens. Notwithstanding this success, the peace concluded
shortly afterwards was again productive of little benefit to Holland.
Meanwhile Louis XIV. of France had disclosed his designs against
the Netherlands, and had taken possession of the part belonging