||418 Route 46. LEEUWARDEN,
We next follow the Groote Kerkstraat and (left) the Beyer-Straat
to the Horpiern, on the left side of which is the Stadhuis (Pl. 20;
C, 2), a building of 1715, with a fine council-room, while on the
right is the insignificant Royal Palace (Pl. 23; ©, 2), the residence
from 1587 to 1747 of the Stadtholders of Friesland and now occupied
by the Royal Commissary for Friesland. The dining-hall contains
portraits of stadtholders and princes of the house of Orange-Nassau.
In the square rises a statue, by Bart. van Hove (1906), of Count
William Lewis of Nassau-Diez (d. 1620), stadtholder of Friesland.
To the W. the Groote Kerkstraat (see above) leads to the OnpE-
HOVE (Pl. 14; A, 2), a massive but unfinished church-tower of brick,
130 ft. high (1529-32; wide view).
In the attractive Noorder-Plantage, laid out on the site of the
old bastions, is the Prinsentuin or Stadtuin (Pl. B, 4, 2), with
simple café (concert on Sun, afternoon in summer, 50 c.).
The Frisians are the only Germanic tribe that has preserved its name
unaltered since the time of Tacitus. They are remarkable for their phys-
ical strength, their bravery, and their love of independence. After wars
with Charles Martel (744-741) and partial conversion to Christianity by
SS. Willibrord (p. 438) and Boniface (p. 449), they submitted to Charle-
magne, who entered into a treaty with this remarkable race, by which
they were recognized as a free people, bound only to pay tithes to the
church. He caused a collection of Frisian laws to be made, and they
still exist in the Asegabuch in the old Frisian language, as well as in
Latin. By the 11th cent., however, the Frisians had already shaken off
the yoke of the imperial counts and had formed the league of the seven
‘Sea Lands’ (West Friesland, Westergau, Ostergau, Drenthe, Groningen,
Emden, and Riistringen), the representatives of which assembled first at
the ‘Upstalboom* (‘Judgment Tree’) near Aurich and afterwards (from about
1350) at Groningen. In 1256 the Frisians defeated and slew the German
king, Count William II. of Holland (p. xxxviii), and it was not till after an
Obstinate struggle, continued through the whole of the 44th cent., that
the Counts of Holland succeeded in subjugating West Friesland.
The Frisian language differs considerably from that of the rest of
Holland, occupying an intermediate position between Anglo-Saxon and
Old Norse, and often closely resembling English : od butter and good
cheese is geod Envlish and good Frieze’. The Frisian literature is not
inconsiderable, and has recently given signs of revival.
The women of Friesland enjoy a great reputation for beauty, and
many attractive faces may be seen among the country-girls who frequent
the market on Fridays at Leeuwarden. Their characteristic headdress is
a kind of skull-cap of gold or silver-gilt, which lies close to the temples,
where it is finished with leaf-like ornaments. These headdresses are
handed down from mother to daughter as heirlooms.
Leeuwarden is connected with the small towns of North Fries-
land by various railways and steam-tramways; but the only line
of any importance is the continuation of the main line between
Groningen and Leeuwarden. — From LesuwaRpEN TO HARLINGEN,
151/> M., railway in 35-40 minutes. — Stations: Deinum, Dronryp,
both of which have ancient churches.
From Leeuwarden to Franeker we may avail ourselves also of the
steam-tramway via (21/, M.) Marssum, at which is the interesting old brick
bui'ding (restored) of the Popta Gusthuis, an almshouse founded at the
close of the 18th century.