A12 Route 44. HELDER.
Another Steam Tramway runs to the N.W. to (21/2 M.) Bergen, where a
monument was erected in 1901 to the Russians who fell here in 1799
(p. 413). The town-hall contains a small museum of local interest (adm.
10c.). The nave of the church was destroyed in 1574, and the choir only
is now used for services. — 5'/2M. Bergen aan Zee (Hdtel Nassau-Bergen,
40 R., pens. from 43/s fl., good) is a small and quiet seaside-resort, with
partly wooded dunes from which fine views are obtained.
From ALKMaAR TO Hoorn, 20 M., railway in 25 min.-3/; hr. This line
is part of the express route from Rotterdam to Haarlem, Alkmaar, and
Enkhuizen; but only slow trains call at the intermediate stations of Heer-
Hugowaard (see below) and Obdam.
Steam-tramways run from Alkmaar to Haarlem and Amsterdam (comp.
pp- 354, 366).
The train crosses the North Holland Canal (p. 405), which
skirts the back of the dunes, and then turns to the N.E. — 311/, M.
Heer- Hugowaard (see above); 34!/) M. Noord-Scharwoude. —
39M. Schagen (Hat. de Roos, 20 R. at 43/4 fl. incl. B., with restaur-
ant), a pleasant little town with a large cattle-market (Thurs.), an
agricultural school, and a ruined castle. Steam-tramway to Wognum
(p. 414). — 46M. Anna Paulowna.
05!/9 M. Helder (*Hétel Bellevue, near the station, 22R. at2 fl.
incl. B., D. 21/, fl. incl. wine; Hét. den Burg, near the harbour,
with view of the Zuiderzee, 24 R. at 13/4-2!/, fl. incl.-B., with
restaurant; Brit. vice-consul, W.J. van Neck) was towards the close
of the 18th cent. little more than a large fishing- village, but now
contains 27,000 inhabitants. In 1811 Napoleon caused extensive
fortifications to be constructed here by Spanish prisoners of war, and
these were afterwards completed by the Dutch. About 3/4 M. to the
E., and connected with Helder by a road along the Helder Dyke, lies
Nieuwediep, the harbour at the mouth of the N. Holland Canal,
where the capacious wharves and magazines of the Dutch Navy and
the Naval Cadet School, together known as Willemsoord, are situated.
Part of the Dutch fleet is generally stationed here. There is also
a Zoological Station at Nieuwediep.
From Heldera tramway runs to the Lighthouse(vuurtoren), rising
on the dunes 1'/p M. to the W., whence there is a magnificent view
of the sea. An interesting walk may be taken along the Helder Dyke
(6'/4 M.long), running round the extreme promontory of N. Holland,
which is exposed more than any other part of the coast to the violence
of the wind and the encroachments of the sea. The dyke is entirely
built of blocks of Norwegian granite and descends into the sea
to a depth of 200 ft., at an angle of 40°. The highest tide never
reaches the summit, while the lowest still covers the foundations.
Huge bulwarks projecting several hundred fathoms into the sea at
intervals add to the stability of the structure. To the N. is the
Fort Erfprins, to the S. the Fort Kykduin, on the highest point of
A fierce and sanguinary nayal battle took place off this coast on 2ist
Aug., 1673, between the united English and French fleets and the Dutch
under De Ruyter and Tromp, in which the latter were victorious. —
In September, 1799, an army of 10,000 English and 13,000 Russian troops,
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K 29612:[a,1,11], Collectie Stad Antwerpen, Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience
Baedeker, Karl, Belgium and Holland, including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg: handbook for travellers, K 29612:[a,1,11], Collectie Stad Antwerpen, Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience