The Treaty of London, of 28th June, 1814, and the provisions
of the Congress of Vienna, of 7th June, 1815, united Belgium and
Holland under the name of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and
elevated William of Orange, son of the former stadtholder of the
Seven Provinces, to the newly-constituted throne (p. xlii). Brussels
alternated with The Hague as the royal residence and seat of govern-
ment. But historical development had differed too widely in the
north and in the south provinces for permanent union; the contrast
was too great between the commercial and Protestant Dutch and the
industrial French-speaking Walloons, who were supported by the
strict Roman Catholic Flemings. A revolution broke out in Brussels
in August, 1830, and after a vain attempt by Prince Frederick of the
Netherlands to enter the city with his troops, spread all over Belgium.
On 40th Nov. the Provisional Government summoned a national
congress, by which the Duc de Nemours, son of Louis Philippe, was
invited to become the sovereign of Belgium. The French monarch
having declined the dignity on behalf of his son, Leopold of Saxe-
Cobourg (b. 1790) was next selected by the congress, and that prince
accordingly ascended the throne on 24st July, 1831. The treaty of
the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th Nov., 1831, by
the representatives of the five great powers and of Belgium, con-
stituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of the independent European
states, and determined the boundaries and the relations between
the two disunited kingdoms. Holland, however, declined to recog-
nize this arrangement and maintained a Dutch garrison in the
citadel of Antwerp, until it was forced to capitulate after a siege of
twenty-four days to a French army in Dee. 18¢ In 1839 the last
difficulties between Holland and Belgium were smoothed away.
Leopold I., the uncle and trusted counseller of Queen Victoria
of Great Britain, developed the resources of his kingdom aud left it
a well-organized and firm state. He was succeeded in 1865 by Leo-
pold II. (b. 1835), who married Marie Henriette (d. 1902), daughter
of the Archduke Joseph. The industrial and agricultural develop-
ment of Belgium owes much to the far-seeing policy and astute
energy of this monarch. In 1885 the Congo Free State( 900,000 sq.M.)
yas established as an independent state under the sovereignty of
King Leopold; and in 1908 it became a Belgian possession. Leo-
pold If. died on Dec. 47th, 1909, and was succeeded by his nephew
Albert (b. 1873), whose consort is Princess Elizabeth of Bavaria.
The Kinepom oF Betcrom has an area of 11,373 sq. M. and a popu-
lation of over 7,300,000, almost exclusively Roman Catholics. The country
is divided into nine provinces, viz. Antwerp, Brabant, W. Flanders, ZL.
Flanders, Hainault, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, and Namur,
Army. The Belgian army is destined on principle only for the defence
of the country and of the neutrality assured to it by the Treaty of London
(see above). Personal service was introduced by law in 1909, at least one
son in each family having to serve for 15 months with the flag if in the
infantry, 2 years if in the cavalry. The army consists in time of peace
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K 29612:[a,1,11], Collectie Stad Antwerpen, Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience
Baedeker, Karl, Belgium and Holland, including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg: handbook for travellers, K 29612:[a,1,11], Collectie Stad Antwerpen, Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience